Breast cancer-typical female oncological disease. Unfortunately, the number of deaths from cancer is increasing every year, it’s a deadly disease is usually detected in the late stages. Cause of the disease: a combination of environmental and genetic factors. The risk of breast cancer is higher in women who have close blood relatives suffering from such a disease. Old age is also one of the risk factors. Women over 50 are more susceptible to developing breast cancer. At risk are also those women who gave birth to first child after age 30 and those who have never given birth.
There are four stages of breast cancer:
Zero-stage non-invasive breast cancer. The term “non-invasive” means that there are no cancer cells outside the tumor foci.
The first stage is an invasive cancer, and it means that the cancer cells have invaded adjacent tissue. The first stage is characterized by swelling of up to two centimeters.
The second stage of breast cancer occurs when a tumor grows no more than five centimeters. The second stage also means that the cancer has penetrated into the lymph nodes surrounding the mammary gland.
The third stage of breast cancer is conventionally divided into two subcategories: IIIA and IIIB. A third step is invasive breast cancer, a tumor more than five centimeters, and a significant number of pathological cells in the lymph nodes. Stage IIIB is defined by a tumor in the breast of any size that has grown on the skin of the breast, lymph nodes and internal chest wall.
The fourth stage is a tumor which has grown beyond the breast, axilla, and the lymph nodes located at the base of the neck, lung, liver.
Stage 0, I, II considered earlier. If breast cancer is detected early, the survival rate increases by 70%. Later stages require more aggressive treatment, hence, the survival rate drops significantly.
Chemotherapy (reception drugs to kill cancer cells);
radiation therapy (destruction of cancerous tissue);
surgery to remove the cancerous tissue (removal of the breast tumor, or removal of the breast completely);
hormone therapy (medication, to block certain hormones that encourage the growth of cancer cells).
Leader of hormonal therapy is the drug tamoxifen. This drug blocks the effects of estrogen, which helps cancer cells grow. Less popular is a hormonal drug Aromasin, because of its side-funds.
We should also highlight the biological therapy, because it is a new type of cancer treatment. When biological therapy oncologist uses special anticancer drugs that target certain changes in the immune system. One of the certified products is Herceptin. The preparation may be used for treatment of early stages of cancer.
The first, second, or third stages of breast cancer, the primary goal of treatment is to remove the tumor and prevent relapse of disease. At the fourth stage of the cancer, the goal of treatment is to improve the general condition of the patient. In most cases, the fourth stage of breast cancer can not be cured.
So, to avoid the late stages of the disease, it is necessary to regularly visit mammalogy, and make their own breast examination. Breast cancer is one of the few cancers that is sufficiently easy to detect in the early stages in the home. It is necessary to respond quickly to any changes in the breast tissue, treatment of a doctor.